- What is RNA interference technology? Write down its applications in plants?
RNA interference technology:
It is a biological process in which RNA molecules show gene expressions by neutralizing the focused messenger RNA. RNA interference turns off the genetic expression of gene by using its own DNA sequence. This technology influences development and evolutionary mechanisms.
Applications of RNA interference technology in plants:
- RNA interference is one of the widely used method by plant breeders.
- It is used in genetic engineering of plants.
- RNA interference provides resistance to various pets that invade genetically engineered plants.
- RNA interference provides defense against many diseases and provides resistance against pathogens, insects, nematodes etc.
- Simply a short template of RNA sequence of a gene in plant is altered to improve plants by modifying Endo-genus gene expression.
- RNA interference is also used in biotechnology for improving crop yield and to produce desired traits in plants.
- What is Chromosome Structural Abnormality? Discuss any four Chromosome Structural Abnormalities?
Chromosome structure is changed by deletion, duplications and trans-locations.
Examples of structural chromosome abnormalities:
Down syndrome is a condition in which an individual carry an extra copy with their 21st chromosome. It is also called trisomy. It causes physical and mental disabilities.
Klinefelter syndrome: It is genetic condition in which a male have an extra X-chromosome. It is sometimes called XXY-syndrome.
Turner syndrome: it only affects female in which female have chromosome with missing an X- chromosome. It produces developmental problems including short heights and failure of ovaries to develop.
Trisomy 21: it is also a type of Down syndrome which is usually associated with physical growth abnormalities and characteristic facial features.
(a)What is DNA sequence –specific diagnostic approaches? Enlist their names and two applications?
DNA sequencing: it is a process used to determine order of nucleotides in DNA molecules which is helpful in understanding the type of genetic information in a specific DNA molecule. It gives exact sequence of basis in a DNA molecule. DNA sequencing is used for a range of diagnostic purposes and treatment of diseases in medicine because by determining the gene sequence we can determine the changes called variance or mutations that are linked to a disorder.
TWO MAIN TYPES OF DNA sequencing are
- Sanger method
- Next generation sequencing method
In Sanger method chain termination is applied while NGS method can process a large number of DNA molecules quickly.
To determine entire genome DNA sequencing gives the sequence of inter liked bases adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine which tells about the whole genetic expression in individual.
DNA sequencing in medicine: It is used for diagnosis and treatment of diseases by knowing mutations in gene expressions. It provides variety of sources of bio-medically significant information.
Write down the major differences between Somatic and Germline Gene therapy?
Gene therapy: This technique uses genes to treat diseases. There are two types of gene therapy
Somatic gene therapy
It is done by transferring a fragment of DNA to any cell of the body that does not produce sperms or eggs. It is responsible to cure a disease only in a patient not in patients descendants.
Germline gene therapy: It is done by inserting a fragment of DNA in to cells that produces reproductive cells like eggs or sperms. It is used for correction of gene variants that can cause a disease from generation to generation.
Somatic therapy target genes and lung cells, skin cells and blood cells etc. while germline therapy modify sperms or eggs.
How the drugs can be delivered through liposomes. Briefly explain with respect to characteristics of liposomes?
A liposome is spherical vesicle that has at least one lipid by layer. It can be used for drug delivery. Liposomes can be used to deliver drugs or DNA vaccines because it can neutralize drug allowing it to freely pass through a membrane by a process called diffusion. It does not involve the direct cell fusion.
A liposome is a vesicle that can be made out by using same materials as cell membranes. It is filled with drugs that can be used to deliver drugs for cancer from outside to inside the body.
Liposome drug delivery is a safe method.
b) What is Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus? Discuss its treatment options?
Non-insulin dependent: It is inheriteddisorder characterized by hyper-glycemia with resistance to ketosis. It is usually expressed after age 40 years. Patients are frequently obese and hypertensive. In type 2 diabetes body produces insulin but cells do not respond to insulin effectively.
Metformin it is usually first described medicine for type 2 diabetes. It decreases hepatic glucose production and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing glucose uptake.
Meglitinides it stimulate a shorter term burst of insulin. These work by triggering production of insulin. These interact with the ATP sensitive potassium channels on beta cells.